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Chemical bonds and It's propertires

by Sliva Samy

Pages 2 and 3 of 29

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Multipurpose book for students of all ages
Chemical bonds
and
It's Properties
Science book 
By Slvia Samy
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Table of Contents
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Introduction

Ionic Bonds
. Examples

Covalent Bonds
. Types of Covalent Bonds

Closure
Introduction
Atoms combine with each other forming molecules through chemical bonds, Ionic bond produces compounds molecules only and doesn’t produce elements molecules because the ionic bond arises between two different atoms, The covalent bond produces elements molecules because it arises between two atoms for one nonmetallic element, The covalent bond produces compounds molecules because it arises between two atoms for two different nonmetallic elements.

Ex . Water atom 
The ionic bond is a type of a chemical bond that is formed as a result of a combination between a positive ion for an atom of a metallic element and a negative ion for an atom of a nonmetallic element to form a molecule of an ionic compound.
How is an ionic bond formed?!
Ionic bond arises due to the combination between a metallic element with a nonmetallic element, A metal atom loses the outermost electron and changes into a positive ion, A nonmetal atom gains the electrons lost from a metal atom and changes into a negative ion, A strong electrical (electrostatic) attraction between positive and negative ions occurs due to their difference in electric charge resulting in the ionic bond.
M → M+ + e−
X + e− → X−
M+ + X− → M+X−
The ionic bond is a chemical bond resulting from the electric attraction between a positive ion and a negative ion.
Ionic bond
The ionic bond is a type of a chemical bond that is formed as a result of a combination between a positive ion for an atom of a metallic element and a negative ion for an atom of a nonmetallic element to form a molecule of an ionic compound.
How is an ionic bond formed?!
Ionic bond arises due to the combination between a metallic element with a nonmetallic element, A metal atom loses the outermost electron and changes into a positive ion, A nonmetal atom gains the electrons lost from a metal atom and changes into a negative ion, A strong electrical (electrostatic) attraction between positive and negative ions occurs due to their difference in electric charge resulting in the ionic bond.
M → M+ + e−
X + e− → X−
M+ + X− → M+X−
The ionic bond is a chemical bond resulting from the electric attraction between a positive ion and a negative ion.
Examples
Formation of a sodium chloride (table salt) molecule [NaCl]: A sodium (metal) atom loses one electron and changes into a positive ion (Na+), A chlorine (nonmetal) atom gain this electron (which is lost by a sodium atom) and changes into a negative ion (Cl−), A strong ionic bond is formed due to the electric attraction between a positive sodium ion (Na+) and a negative chloride ion (Cl−) forming an ionic molecule of sodium chloride (NaCl).
Formation of a magnesium oxide molecule [MgO]: A magnesium (metal) atom loses 2 electrons and changes into a positive ion (Mg+2), An oxygen (nonmetal) atom gains 2 electrons (which are lost by magnesium atom) and changes into a negative ion (O−2), A strong ionic bond is formed due to the electric attraction between a positive magnesium ion (Mg+2) and a negative oxygen ion (O−2) forming an ionic molecule of magnesium oxide (MgO).
Video shows you bond formed between NaCl
Video shows you bond formed between (MgO)
Formation of a magnesium oxide molecule [MgO]: A magnesium (metal) atom loses 2 electrons and changes into a positive ion (Mg+2), An oxygen (nonmetal) atom gains 2 electrons (which are lost by magnesium atom) and changes into a negative ion (O−2), A strong ionic bond is formed due to the electric attraction between a positive magnesium ion (Mg+2) and a negative oxygen ion (O−2) forming an ionic molecule of magnesium oxide (MgO).
Video shows you bond formed between (MgO)
Ionic bond produces compounds molecules only and doesn’t produce elements molecules because ionic bond arises between two different atoms as a result of the electric attraction between a positive ion for an atom of a metallic element and a negative ion for an atom of a nonmetallic element.
Covalent bond
The covalent bond is a type of chemical bond that occurs between two nonmetal atoms to form a molecule of a covalent compound.
Note :

It is impossible to combine sodium and magnesium together to form a compound because each of them is metal and its atom tends to lose the outermost electrons during chemical reactions.
How is a Covalent bond formed?!
From the previous explanation, we conclude that: The ionic bond can’t be originated between:
· Two atoms of a metal element (similar atoms) because each of them forms a positive ion.
· Two atoms of a nonmetal element (similar atoms) because each of them forms a negative ion.
When two nonmetal atoms are interacting with each other, no one of them loses or even gains any electrons. But each atom shares the other with a number of electrons (from its outermost shell) equal to the number of electrons it needs to complete its outermost shell.
An interference occurred between both atoms, resulting in a bond known as a covalent bond, The covalent bond is a chemical bond originated between the atoms of nonmetals through sharing (participation) of each atom with a number of electrons to complete the outer electron shell of each atom.
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