Book Creator

CULTURAL AWARENESS

by YULIANA MERCELI JIMENEZ PEÑA

Pages 2 and 3 of 33

Cultural
Awareness 
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Low Context
Tend to prefer direct verbal interaction

Tend to understand meaning at one level only

Are generally less proficient in reading nonverbal cues

Value individualism

Rely more on logic

Employ linear logic

Say ‘no’ directly
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High Context
Tend to prefer indirect verbal interaction

Tend to understand meanings embedded at many sociocultural levels

Are generally more proficient in reading nonverbal cues

Value group membership

Rely more on context and feeling

Employ spiral logic

Talk around point; avoid saying no
Communication is simple, sometimes ambiguous, messages; understand visual messages readily
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High Context
Tend to prefer indirect verbal interaction

Tend to understand meanings embedded at many sociocultural levels

Are generally more proficient in reading nonverbal cues

Value group membership

Rely more on context and feeling

Employ spiral logic

Talk around point; avoid saying no
Communication is simple, sometimes ambiguous, messages; understand visual messages readily
Monochronic
To maintain a thriving business in a monochronic time culture, the company must emphasize the following elements.

1. Punctuality
Keeping time is essential for any stakeholder in a project. In monochronic cultures, employees know their schedule ahead of time and organize their week in advance.

2. One Activity at a Time
An employee must complete a current task before moving on to the next in a monochronic time system. This holds employees accountable for their time and enables managers to see more easily if employees are completing the necessary tasks.
3. Business Time Management Tools
Employees in a monochronic orientation must schedule every task in a calendar or daily planner with a detailed plan and allocated time for completion.

4. Short Term Relationships
People in monochronic cultures prefer engaging in short-term connections for particular transactions. 

 5. Individual Accomplishment
Since managers assign particular tasks to each individual on a project, personal achievement becomes a primary goal in monochronic culture. Completing tasks within a given time frame and adhering to the culture of scheduled events indicates that an employee is performing well. 
3. Business Time Management Tools
Employees in a monochronic orientation must schedule every task in a calendar or daily planner with a detailed plan and allocated time for completion.

4. Short Term Relationships
People in monochronic cultures prefer engaging in short-term connections for particular transactions. 

 5. Individual Accomplishment
Since managers assign particular tasks to each individual on a project, personal achievement becomes a primary goal in monochronic culture. Completing tasks within a given time frame and adhering to the culture of scheduled events indicates that an employee is performing well. 
6. Hard Deadlines
Everyone must adhere to deadlines at all costs in a monochronic orientation. Meeting deadlines promptly shows that an employee is conscious of their clients’ time, as well as the busy lives of their fellow employees.
 
 Polychronic
On the other hand, a company operating in a polychronic society is used to:

1. Human Interaction and Personal Connection
Human interaction and personal connection foster a sense of belonging in the company

2. Group Work
Working as a group takes the stress off individuals and makes room for multi-tasking.

3. A Holistic Approach
The success of a project is measured holistically, rather than on a task-by-task basis. 

4. Flexibility
Time is flexible, and work merges with personal time. An employee may be working on a task while on the phone talking to another member of the team to share information.  

2. Group Work
Working as a group takes the stress off individuals and makes room for multi-tasking.

3. A Holistic Approach
The success of a project is measured holistically, rather than on a task-by-task basis. 

4. Flexibility
Time is flexible, and work merges with personal time. An employee may be working on a task while on the phone talking to another member of the team to share information.  

5. High context communication
Polychronic people tend to communicate crucial information with a lot of accompanying background information. There is an emphasis on the tone of voice and visible communication cues like raising of eyebrows or clicking of the tongue. 

6. Long term relationship
Whether they are between employees or with clients, long term relationships are crucial to the success of a business in polychronic societies. 

7. Collectivist Society 
A few common traits of collectivist cultures include:
Individuals define themselves in relation to others (for example, “I am a member of…”).
Group loyalty is encouraged.
Working as a group and supporting others is essential.
Greater emphasis is placed on common goals than on individual pursuits.
The rights of families and communities comes before those of the individual.
Countries that are relatively more collectivistic include China, Korea, Japan, Costa Rica, and Indonesia.
In collectivistic cultures, people are considered "good" if they are generous, helpful, dependable, and attentive to the needs of others. This contrasts with individualistic cultures, which often place a greater emphasis on characteristics such as assertiveness and independence.

8. Individualist Society 
Individualistic cultures tend to be found in western countries such as the United States, Canada, and the United Kingdom.
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