Book Creator


by Cristin Baker

Pages 2 and 3 of 10

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Watch this short video to learn about volcanoes.
Volcano - a mountain or hill made by hot rocks and gases moving to the surface of Earth from deep inside Earth

Erupt - to break open suddenly

Key Concept
Volcanic eruptions can cause rapid changes on Earth’s surface like creating new land or even destroying things in its path.
Building Background
The Earth is made up of layers: the inner core, outer core, mantle, and crust. The core is made up of molten rock, called magma, that is tremendously hot. The outer two layers, the crust and the mantle sit on top of the magma. When magma makes its way to Earth's surface (the crust), a volcano is formed.

Take a look at the layers of Earth below:
Volcanoes erupt when magma reaches the surface of Earth. Magma at Earth's surface is called lava. Lava, hot ash, and even gases from deep in the volcano flow down the sides of the volcano and eventually hardens. Some volcanoes release slow, continuous flows of lava that turn into large, wide volcanic mountains! Other volcanoes erupt angrily and with violence with pyroclastic lava flows, destroying everything in its path.
magma - molten (melted) rock deep in Earth's crust
lava - magma that has reached the surface of Earth
pyroclastic - deadly, fast-moving rush of super hot rock, ash, and gases
Since lava is made up of rocks that were so hot that they melted, when lava cools, it turns back into...


So then, as lava builds up, it can form land. Some islands were formed this way. The islands of Hawaii were created from underwater volcanoes that erupted. The lava built up over time to eventually form these beautiful islands.
Volcanoes can both destroy land and create land. As time passes, lava left behind from a volcanic eruption can eventually be deposited with soil that gives way to plants. So, the same force that caused destruction can also bring new life.