Book Creator

The joints

by Unique Anderson

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Joints
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By Unique A
Main joints
  • Hinge joint
  • Plane joint
  • Ankle
  • Pivot joint
  • Cartilaginous joint
  • Fibrous joint
  • Sternoclavicular joint


  • Ball and socket joint
  • Synovial joint
  • Condyloid joint
  • Elbow
  • Saddle joint

Ball and socket joint
Saddle joint
  • composed of one bone with a rounded head that fits into the cup of another bone.
  • allow the greatest freedom of movement. The hips and shoulders have this type of joint.

Pivot joint
  •  joints that permit rotatory movement of bones, around a single axis. 
  • a synovial joint in which the ends of two bones connect. In this joint, a cylinder-shaped bone rotates inside another ligament that forms a ring around the joint.
  • does not allow rotation, it does enable movement back and forth and side to side.
  •  a type of synovial joint in which the opposing surfaces are reciprocally concave and convex. It is found in the thumb, the thorax, the middle ear, and the heel. 
Synovial joint
Hinge joint
  • a type of synovial joint that exists in the body and serves to allow motion primarily in one plane. 
  • made up of two or more bones with articular surfaces that are covered by hyaline cartilage and lubricated by synovial fluid.

  • characterised by the presence of a fluid-filled joint cavity contained within a fibrous capsule. It is the most common type of joint found in the human body.
  • The six types of synovial joints are pivot, hinge, condyloid, saddle, plane, and ball-and socket-joints,The six types of synovial joints allow the body to move in a variety of ways.

Cartilaginous joint
Condyloid joint
  • a type of joint where the bones are entirely joined by cartilage, either hyaline cartilage or fibrocartilage. 
  • generally allow more movement than fibrous joints but less movement than synovial joints.
  • epiphyseal plate in long bones, sternocostal joint (synchondroses), and intervertebral and pubic symphyses.

  • a type of synovial joint where the articular surface of one bone has an ovoid convexity sitting within an ellipsoidal cavity of the other bone.
  • similar to a ball and socket joint. However, the ligaments and the joint's oval shape prevent it from rotating. It moves up and down and side to side. The wrist joint is a perfect example.

Plane joint
Fibrous joint
  • type of structure in the body formed between two bones in which the articular, or free, surfaces of the bones are flat or nearly flat, enabling the bones to slide over each other.
  • examples include facet joints of the spine, intercarpal joints of the wrist, intertarsal joints of the midfoot, acromioclavicular joint.

  • the joints in which the bones are connected by fibrous tissue. 
  • called fixed or immovable joints as they do not allow any movement between the bones. They do not have a joint cavity, and the fibrous tissue which connects the bones is made up of collage fibres.
  • an example is cranial sutures between bones of the skull.

The Elbow
The Ankle
  • a synovial hinge joint made up of articulations of mainly the distal humerus and the proximal ulna. However, articulations exist between the proximal radius and the humerus as well as the proximal radius and ulna.
  • a synovial joint located in the lower limb. It is formed by the bones of the leg and the foot.
  •  it is a hinge type joint, permitting dorsiflexion and plantarflexion of the foot.
Sternoclavicular joint
  • a saddle-shaped, synovial joint that is the primary skeletal connection between the axial skeleton and the upper limb. 
  •  to coordinate the movements of the upper limb with the core of the body. Thus allowing the upper limb to perform its full range of motion.
Threats
Arthritis
  •  inflammation of a joint. It causes pain, stiffness, and swelling. Over time, the joint can become severely damaged.
  • Osteoarthritis is caused by the wear and tear of the joint over time or because of overuse.

Bursitis
  • inflammation of a fluid-filled sac that cushions the joint.
  •  injury or overuse, but it can also be caused by infection. Pain, swelling, and tenderness near a joint are the most common signs of bursitis. Bursitis can be treated with rest and medicines to help with the inflammation. Antibiotics are used if infection is found.

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