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Intro to Linguistics

by Zulvanisa Nur L

Pages 2 and 3 of 53

INTRO TO
LINGUISTICS
By Zulvanisa
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CONTENTS
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Chapter 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Chapter 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Chapter 3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Chapter 4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Chapter 5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Chapter 6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Chapter 7 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Chapter 8 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Chapter 9 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Key Answers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Bibliography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
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CHAPTER 1
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Introduction to Linguistics
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Definition of Linguistics

Linguistics is the science of language in general or not tied to one language only (Muliastuti, 2014, p. 1). Therefore, sometimes this science is also called general linguistics (general linguistics). However, according to Chaer (in Muliastuti, 2014) based on the breadth of the object of study, linguistics can be divided into general linguistics and special linguistics. It is predictable that special linguistics means focusing its study on one language only.


Definition of Language

> According to Tarigan, language is a systematic system, and perhaps also generative. And language is also interpreted as symbols which like or arbitrary symbols.
> According to Gorys Keraf, language is a means of communication between members of the community by using sound symbols produced from human speech tools.
> According to Sunaryo, language is defined as a cultural structure which has a dual position, function, and role. Language is the root and product of a culture which also has a function as a means of thinking, supporting, growing and also developing of science and technology.
> Syamsudin defines language as a clear sign of a good or bad personality as a sign of family and humanity.

From the understanding of language according to some of the experts above, it can be concluded that language is a sound symbol that appears as a cultural product to be used as a means of communicating and interacting with other humans. And the use of language is also adapted to the circumstances and culture. Like the Javanese people who will still use the ngoko language when talking to their parents.
Linguistics Branch
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Micro linguistics

1. Phonetic
2. Phonology
3. Morphology
4. Syntax
5. Semantic
Linguistics Macro

1. Psycholinguistics
2. Sociolinguistics
3. Historical Linguistics
CHAPTER 2
PHONETICS
Definition of Phonetics

Phonetics is a branch of linguistics that studies the sounds of language without regard to whether these sounds can distinguish meaning or not (Dhanawaty, et al, 2017, p. 29). Such sounds are called neutral sounds or are not bound to a particular language. Of course, the sound in question is the sound of language in the form of speech. As stated by Muliastuti (2014, p. 19) phonetics is a part of linguistics that studies speech processes.

Type/ Scope of Phonetics

1. Organic/Articulatory Phonetics
Is a branch of phonetics that studies the mechanism by which speech organs work in producing speech sounds and how these sounds are classified.

2. Acoustic Phonetics
Study the sound of language as a physical event and investigate it in terms of vibration frequency, intensity amplitude, and timbre (quality/form of sound). The main concern of this study is the sound waves generated during speech activity and the transmission of these vibration waves through the air.

3. Auditory Phonetics
Reveal the mechanism of receiving language sounds by the ear. His main concern is on the perception of sound waves by the listener's ear, both with regard to the physiology of the ear and related hearing instruments as well as with regard to the psychology of perception (Dhanawaty, et al, 2017, p. 29).
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Of the three types or types of phonetics above, what is considered most related to linguistics is articulatory phonetics. Meanwhile, acoustic phonetics is an interdisciplinary between linguistics and physics. Auditory phonetics itself is mostly studied in the medical or health world.
Articulatory Phonetics
The study of the production of speech sounds (it deals with the sender that the receiver of message).

In this part, we will learn about :
1. The anatomy of vocal organs
2. Air stream mechanisms (Pulmonic, Glottic, Velatic)
3. Voicing (Voiced and Voiceless)
4. Articulation (Place of articulation & Manner of articulation)
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Ellipse;
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Articulatory Phonetics
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Place of Articulation
Most speech sounds are produced by pushing air through the vocal cords.

- Glottis : the opening between the vocal cords
- Larynx : 'voice box'
- Pharynx : tubular part of the throat above the larynx
- Oral cavity : mouth
- Nasal cavity : nose and the passages connecting it to the throat and sinuses
> Consonants are sound produced with some restriction or closure in the vocal tract
> Consonants are classified based in part on where in the vocal tract the airflow is being restricted (the place articulation)
> The major places of articulation are : bilabial, labiodental, interdental, alveolar, palatal, velar, uvular, and glottal
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