Book Creator

Elements & Compounds Customized Curriculum

by Adrianna Rust

Pages 2 and 3 of 41

Atoms and Molecules
All substances, whether they are elements, compounds, or mixtures, are made up of tiny particles. These particles are either individual atoms or groups of atoms called molecules.
atom: extremely tiny particles of matter. An atom is the smallest particle of an element that can exist. All substances are made up of atoms.

elements: substance that contains just one type of atom

compounds: substance that contains two or more different elements joined together by chemical bonds

mixtures: substance made up of two or more elements or compounds that are not joined together by chemical bonds

particles: small piece of a substance

molecules: type of particle made up of two or more atoms joined together by chemical bonds
Experiment: Reactive Metals
Problem: Which common metals are most reactive?

Hypothesis: To discover which metals are most reactive, we can put pieces of the metals in a weak acid and watch what happens. The one that fizzes most quickly will be the most reactive.
nail made of iron or steel
galvanized (zinc-coated) nail
nail made of copper or brass
white vinegar
three small jars
one bowl
Experiment Steps
1. Put a nail into each of the three small jars. Pour just enough vinegar into the jars to cover the nails. Watch what happens for a few minutes. While you wait, ask an adult to heat a kettle of water.
When you are finished, answer the problem question using the link to the right!
2. Make sure a window is open, because the next part can get really smelly! Ask the adult to pour hot water into the bowl. Put the jars into the water so the hot water heats the vinegar up. Do not breathe deeply close to the jars.
If there are bubbles coming off the surface of the metal, there is a reaction happening.
When you are finished, answer the problem question using the link to the right!
Common Metals
Metals are extracted from rocks in Earth's crust. The rocks contain minerals called ores. An ore is a compound made up of a metal combined with other elements.
Copper: Copper is a soft, brown metal that is easy to bend and cut. It is very good at conducting electricity, so it is frequently used to make wires and cables.
Aluminum: Aluminum is a silver-colored metal that has a low density. Density is the mass of an object. Most aluminum is made into soda cans, pots and pans in used in the kitchen, and aluminum foil.