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UNAN 51

by UNAN PERU - MEXICO

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UNAN 51
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Dear Readers,

I have the honor to present to you the 51st issue of the digital magazine of the American Numismatic Union, in acronym UNAN, which to celebrate this anniversary is published for the first time entirely in English. The main reason for this is its vocation to integrate the entire continent within the umbrella of this Union, thus promoting brotherhood not only with those countries that speak Spanish and Portuguese, but also with those that have English as their official or main language.

To this end, some articles from previous issues have been rescued and translated into English. This is the case of the first of them, signed by the unfortunately deceased distinguished numismatic researcher Arnaldo J Cunietti-Ferrando, and dedicated to the always exciting topic of the issues of cape bar coins, cobs or macuquinas of the first centuries of Spanish rule in America.

The second of the articles, also previously published in English and Spanish in a previous issue of the magazine, is dedicated to the important role played by the Father of the American Nation, Thomas Jefferson, in the adoption of the eight-real peso or dollar as the currency of the nascent United States of America.

From Peru, Mr. Jonathan Moscoso informs us about the curious issue of a medal that was legal tender, authorized in May 1965 by the British Royal Mint in honor of Sir Winston Churchill, a great man of the United Kingdom. No less interesting is the article signed by the eminent researcher Roberto Jovel dedicated to the origins of the 1909 Salvadoran issue of ¼ real face value.

Very important in this issue is the contribution of several distinguished Puerto Rican collaborators and researchers. The first of these, signed by Eliseo Ramos, is dedicated to the exchange bills used to replace the currency in circulation with the new pesos in the twilight of the Spanish government on the island. Damaris Mercado includes a careful and very interesting study on Saint Eloy, patron saint of numismatists, among other guilds.

There is also information on UNAN's training activities, as well as on the new members who have joined our association. The management and editorial staff of UNAN hope that this issue will be the beginning of a long series of other publications in the future using the English language for the dissemination of numismatic culture.

Best regards.
Editorial
6
32
49
Pedro Cano
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CONTENT
Comic Panel 1
12
26
32
49
02. Editorial

03. Content

04. Credits

06. The kechwa "macuquina” voice applied to cob coins from Potosí and Lima by Arnaldo J. Cunietti-Ferrando.+

12. Thomas Jefferson and the establishing of the Spanish dollar as the US monetary standard by Pedro Damián Cano Borrego.

20. Program of the UNAN Virtual School of Numismatics year 2022 -2023

25. UNAN 2022 Membership

26. A medal currency by Jonathan Moscoso.

32. The origins of the El Salvador 1909 ¼ - real coin by J. Roberto Jovel.

44. Puerto Rico’s Peso Coin and "Billete de Canje" by Eliseo Ramos Feliciano

49. Saint Eloy: Patron Saint of Numismatists by Dámaris Mercado-Martínez

64. Medal award design for soldiers in Cuba for capturing maroon slaves (1820) by Dr. Ángel O. Navarro Zayas
UNAN NUMISMATICA VOL. VIII N°051 - DECEMBER 2022 
UNAN - STEERING GROUP

PRESIDENTS: Roberto Jovel, Dámaris Mercado-Martínez, Álvaro Rodríguez, Arturo Villagra, Pedro Cano Borrego.

VICE PRESIDENTS: Manuel Chacón, Mabel Petito Ros, Jonathan Moscoso Briceño, Pablo López.

FOUNDER Carlos Torres Gandolfi.

EXECUTIVE DIRECTOR Raúl Tapia Bascopé (Bolivia).

DEPUTY EXECUTIVE DIRECTOR / Pedro Cano Borrego (Spain).

EDITING DIRECTOR | Jonathan Moscoso Briceño (Peru).

SUB DIRECTOR DE EDICIÓN | Pablo Moya (Chile).

COVER ILLUSTRATOR | Javier "Tuxs" Pons (Argentina).

EDITORIAL COMMITTEE |
Pablo Casas Rábago (Mexico), Jonathan Moscoso (Peru), Pablo López (Mexico), Claudia Reyes (Argentina), Pablo Moya Mascaró (Chile), Raúl Tapia Bascopé (Bolivia).

LEGAL COUNSEL Dr. Marcelo Castillo Sánchez (Chile).

GROUP OF NUMISMATIC EXPERTS

Arturo Villagra (Argentina), Raúl Tapia Bascopé (Bolivia), Roberto Jovel (El Salvador), Oswaldo M. Rodrigues Jr. (Brazil), Alexandre Cabral da Costa (Brazil), Leandro Michels Widnef (Brazil), Ildemar Margraf (Brazil), Carlos Torres Gandolfi (Chile-Brazil), Ramón Rodríguez Hernández (Uruguay), Bernardo A. Oliva Muñoz (Chile), Ricardo Álvarez Carrasco (Peru), Pedro Cano (Spain).

CREDITS
Comic Panel 1
The bimonthly digital magazine "UNAN Numismatica" is the official communication media of the American Numismatic Union. It is a non-profit scientific publication, with free distribution, whose objective is the dissemination of Numismatics as a "Social Science", in all its manifestations, as well as in its history and culture of America, promoting the union and integration, in the principles of "Friendship and Collaboration" in the recognition of diversity and plurality.

It was created by its managers together with the foundation of the UNAN, on February 23, 2015, with the decisive collaboration of the Numismatic Society of Tacna.

The total or partial reproduction of the magazine is authorized, thanking to cite the source.The authors of articles are responsible for their content, which does not necessarily reflect the opinion of the American Numismatic Union.

Authors are responsible that their articles and their content (images, graphics, charts, or any other media) comply with all authorizations as well as any intellectual property permits that may be required. When submitting articles for publication, authors agree to withdraw in peace and safety from the American Numismatic Union in case of any legal conflict that may arise from failure to comply with the above.

The content of the articles is the sole responsibility of the authors, who may have copyrights registered as intellectual property.

To submit articles, questions, comments or comments, please contact us at the following e-mail addresses: revista.unan@gmail.com

Back issues can be downloaded at
http://www.mascoleccionismo.com/archivo-revista-unan-numismatica/
UNAN - GRUPO DIRECTIVO
PRESIDENTES: Roberto Jovel, Dámaris Mercado-Martínez, Álvaro Rodríguez, Arturo Villagra, Pedro Cano Borrego.
VICEPRESIDENTES: Manuel Chacón, Mabel Petito Ros, Jonathan Moscoso Briceño, Pablo López.
FUNDADOR Carlos Torres Gandolfi.
DIRECTOR EJECUTIVO | Diretor Executivo Raúl Tapia Bascopé (Bolivia).
SUB DIRECTOR EJECUTIVO / Sub Diretor Executivo Pedro Cano Borrego (España).
DIRECTOR DE EDICIÓN | Diretor De Edição Jonathan Moscoso Briceño (Perú).
SUB DIRECTOR DE EDICIÓN | Sub Diretor De Edição Pablo Moya (Chile).
ILUSTRADOR DE PORTADA | Ilustrador da capa Javier "Tuxs" Pons (Argentina).
COMITÉ EDITORIAL | COMITÊ EDITORIAL
Pablo Casas Rábago (México), Jonathan Moscoso (Perú), Pablo López (México), Claudia Reyes (Argentina), Pablo Moya Mascaró (Chile), Raúl Tapia Bascopé (Bolivia).
ASESORÍA LEGAL Dr. Marcelo Castillo Sánchez (Chile).
GRUPO DE EXPERTOS NUMISMÁTICOS
Arturo Villagra (Argentina), Raúl Tapia Bascopé (Bolivia), Roberto Jovel (El Salvador), Oswaldo M. Rodrigues Jr. (Brasil), Alexandre Cabral da Costa (Brasil), Leandro Michels Widnef (Brasil), Ildemar Margraf (Brasil), Carlos Torres Gandolfi (Chile-Brasil), Ramón Rodríguez Hernández (Uruguay), Bernardo A. Oliva Muñoz (Chile), Ricardo Álvarez Carrasco (Perú), Pedro Cano (España).
La revista digital bimestral “UNAN Numismática” es el medio de comunicación oficial de la Unión Americana de Numismática. Es una publicación científica sin fines de lucro, con distribución gratuita, cuyo objetivo es la divulgación de la Numismática como “Ciencia Social”, en todas sus manifestaciones, así como en su historia y la cultura de América, promoviendo la unión e integración, en los principios de “Amistad y Colaboración” en el reconocimiento de la diversidad y la pluralidad.
Fue creada por sus gestores junto con la fundación de la UNAN, el día 23 de febrero de 2015, con la colaboración decisiva de la Sociedad Numismática de Tacna.
Se autoriza la reproducción total o parcial de la revista, agradeciendo citar la fuente.
UNAN NUMISMATICA VOL. VIII N°051 - DECEMBER 2022 
UNAN - GRUPO DIRECTIVO
PRESIDENTES: Roberto Jovel, Dámaris Mercado-Martínez, Álvaro Rodríguez, Arturo Villagra, Pedro Cano Borrego.
VICEPRESIDENTES: Manuel Chacón, Mabel Petito Ros, Jonathan Moscoso Briceño, Pablo López.
FUNDADOR Carlos Torres Gandolfi.
DIRECTOR EJECUTIVO | Diretor Executivo Raúl Tapia Bascopé (Bolivia).
SUB DIRECTOR EJECUTIVO / Sub Diretor Executivo Pedro Cano Borrego (España).
DIRECTOR DE EDICIÓN | Diretor De Edição Jonathan Moscoso Briceño (Perú).
SUB DIRECTOR DE EDICIÓN | Sub Diretor De Edição Pablo Moya (Chile).
ILUSTRADOR DE PORTADA | Ilustrador da capa Javier "Tuxs" Pons (Argentina).
COMITÉ EDITORIAL | COMITÊ EDITORIAL
Pablo Casas Rábago (México), Jonathan Moscoso (Perú), Pablo López (México), Claudia Reyes (Argentina), Pablo Moya Mascaró (Chile), Raúl Tapia Bascopé (Bolivia).
ASESORÍA LEGAL Dr. Marcelo Castillo Sánchez (Chile).
GRUPO DE EXPERTOS NUMISMÁTICOS
Arturo Villagra (Argentina), Raúl Tapia Bascopé (Bolivia), Roberto Jovel (El Salvador), Oswaldo M. Rodrigues Jr. (Brasil), Alexandre Cabral da Costa (Brasil), Leandro Michels Widnef (Brasil), Ildemar Margraf (Brasil), Carlos Torres Gandolfi (Chile-Brasil), Ramón Rodríguez Hernández (Uruguay), Bernardo A. Oliva Muñoz (Chile), Ricardo Álvarez Carrasco (Perú), Pedro Cano (España).
La revista digital bimestral “UNAN Numismática” es el medio de comunicación oficial de la Unión Americana de Numismática. Es una publicación científica sin fines de lucro, con distribución gratuita, cuyo objetivo es la divulgación de la Numismática como “Ciencia Social”, en todas sus manifestaciones, así como en su historia y la cultura de América, promoviendo la unión e integración, en los principios de “Amistad y Colaboración” en el reconocimiento de la diversidad y la pluralidad.
Fue creada por sus gestores junto con la fundación de la UNAN, el día 23 de febrero de 2015, con la colaboración decisiva de la Sociedad Numismática de Tacna.
Se autoriza la reproducción total o parcial de la revista, agradeciendo citar la fuente.
Los autores de los artículos son responsables de su contenido, que no necesariamente reflejan la opinión de la Unión Americana de Numismática.
Los autores son responsables de que sus artículos y los contenidos de estos (imágenes, gráficas, tablas o cualquier otro medio), cumplan con todas las autorizaciones así como los permisos en materia de propiedad intelectual que, en su caso, sean necesarios. Los autores, al someter los artículos para publicación, aceptan sacar en paz y a salvo a la Unión Americana de Numismática en caso de cualquier conflicto legal que pueda derivar del incumplimiento de lo señalado.
Para recibir periódicamente la revista, por consultas, comentarios o envío de artículos, puede contactarse a través de la dirección de correo electrónico: revista.unan@gmail.com
Las ediciones anteriores pueden descargarse en :
http://www.mascoleccionismo.com/archivo-revista-unan-numismatica/
A revista digital bimestral “UNAN Numismática” é o meio de comunicação oficial da União Americana de Numismática.
É uma publicação sem fins lucrativos, com distribuição gratuita, cujo objetivo é a divulgação da Numismática em todas suas manifestações, assim como a história e a cultura de América, promovendo a integração, no reconhecimento da diversidade e a pluralidade.
Foi criada junto com a fundação da UNAN, o dia 23 de fevereiro de 2015, com a colaboração decisiva da Sociedade Numismática de Tacna.
Autoriza-se a reprodução total ou parcial da revista e agradece- se a menção da fonte. O conteúdo dos artigos é de responsabilidade exclusiva dos autores, os quais podem ter direitos de autor registrados como
propriedade intelectual.
P a r a r e c e b e r p e r i o d i c ame n t e a r e v i s t a, questionamentos, comentários ou envio de artigos, favor entrar em contato através dos endereços de correio eletrônico: revista.unan@gmail.com
As edições anteriores podem ser baixadas em:
http://www.mascoleccionismo.com/archivo-revista-unan-numismatica/
The kechwa "MACUQUINA" voice applied to cob coins from Potosí and Lima
By Arnaldo J. Cunietti-Ferrando (Argentina)
In 1982, that is more than thirty years ago, we unveiled the key that had allowed us to elucidate the hitherto enigmatic meaning of the word “macuquina”, a subject that had long fascinated prominent practitioners of South American numismatics.

Let us remember that Burzio in his Dictionary defines the macuquina as an Spanish-American silver or gold colonial coin, struck in irregular coin blanks without ribbing, with cut edges, variable thickness and modulus, and crude minting that circulated in the world
under the name of "current", in America with a lower value compared to that of the cord of the pillar and bust types, called “strong”, and adds: “the origin of the word macuquina or macuquino has not been found, its etymological attribution being varied”.

Burzio also points out that some authors make it derive from the Arabic "mahcuc" which means recognized, verified. In turn, José Toribio Medina notes that the word could derive from the adjective "macuco" which in Chile, Peru and Argentina, is equivalent to concealed,
UNAN NUMISMATICA VOL. VIII N°051 - DECEMBER 2022 
UNAN NUMISMATICA VOL. VIII N°051 - DECEMBER 2022 
1. José T. Medina, “Monedas coloniales hispanoamericanas” Santiago de Chile, 1919, Pág. 16.
2. Kurt Prober. “Historia Numismática de Guatemala”. Guatemala, 1947.
3. This paragraph quoted by Cabrera appears somewhat incongruous due to the clipping of the quote. This is the chapter in which Garcilaso describes the neighborhoods and houses of Cuzco and the complete text reads as follows: “Following the same north-south journey, Cusipata square happens, which today is called Nuestra Señora de las Mercedes; In it are the Indian men and women who, with their miseries, did the trade of merchants in my time, bartering one thing for another; because at that time there was no use of mined currency, nor was it mined in the twenty years after: it was like a fair or market that the Indians call catu” (Book 7 of the Royal Commentaries, chapter XI). Elsewhere and with the same meaning, we find that King Pachacutec "wanted the markets to be daily, which they call catu."
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