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Ancient Rome

by Heather MacKinnon

Pages 2 and 3 of 10

Ancient Rome
by Heather MacKinnon
- The city of Rome was the center of one of the largest and most powerful empires the world has seen.

-The Roman Empire was based in what is now Italy

- As the Roman Empire took over more land and people, its influence spread throughout Western Europe.

- The achievements of the Romans influenced the languages, literature, laws, methods of government, roads, and buildings all over Western Europe.

- Ancient Rome can be divided into two main periods.

- The Roman people established a republic around 509 BCE. In 27BCE, the republic became an empire which lasted for almost 500 years.
Some Background on Rome
-Over 2,500 years ago, Rome began as a tiny village along the Tiber River on the Italian peninsula.

-It was an excellent location.

-The soil was good so crops could be grown easily.

- It was surrounded by 7 hills which offered a natural defensive barrier.

- The river provided fresh water for drinking and bathing.

- With these advantages, Rome grew quickly.
Early Rule of Ancient Rome
- Early ancient Rome was ruled by kings with Romulus ruling for 37 years.

- While Romulus was king, he established the military, the senate and a judiciary system.

- Romulus also waged war on his neighbours who were known as the Sabines.

- He was known for stealing the young women of the Sabines and Latins in order to form marriages with the men of ancient Rome.

- This caused problems between the groups of people around ancient Rome, and war broke out.

-When the war against the Sabines ended in stalemate, Romulus was forced to jointly rule with King Titus of the Sabines.

- Romulus went on to kill King Titus after 5 years and rule early ancient Rome solely on his own.
The Roman Empire
-Around 133BCE Rome entered a period of unrest and civil war.

-People in Italy rebelled against Rome's strict rule in 90BCE.

-During 73-71BCE a gladiator, named Spartacus led an army of runaway slaves in war against Rome.

-Rome defeated both of these rebellions.

-Meanwhile, Rome continued to expand its empire.

-The most successful general was Julius Caesar.

- He won victories in far-off areas and took the power in Rome.

- However, his enemies assassinated him in 44BCE. This set off another period of civil war.

- Pease finally came under the leadership of Caesar's grandnephew Octavian, who became Rome's first emperor.
Downfall of Rome
-After the death of the emperor Theodosius I in 395, the Roman Empire split in two.

-The Eastern Roman Empire was based in Constantinople. The Western Roman Empire was based in Rome.

-Several groups of outside peoples, including the Vandals and the Huns, attacked the western empire.

-A group called the Visigoths attacked the city of Rome in 410.

-The last western emperor fell in 476.

-This brought an end to the Western Roman Empire.

-The eastern empire continued as the Byzantine Empire until 1453
Timeline of Ancient Rome