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Interdependence of Life

by Twana Jackson

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Interdependence of Life
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By: Ms. Twana Jackson
Table of Contents
Introduction................................................................................................1
Overview......................................................................................................2
History of Natural Selection......................................................................3
Classification of Organisms......................................................................4
Kingdoms..................................................................................................5
Animal Kingdom......................................................................................6
Plant Kingdom..........................................................................................7
Fungi Kingdom........................................................................................8
Protists Kingdom......................................................................................9
Monera Kingdom.......................................................................................10
Review Kingdom Classifications............................................................11
Ecology.......................................................................................................12
Biotic and Abiotic Factors........................................................................13
Symbiosis...................................................................................................14
Ecosystem Populations and Individuals............................................15
Ecosystem Communities...................................................................16-17
Biomes......................................................................................................18
Tundra......................................................................................................19
Desert.......................................................................................................20
Savanna...................................................................................................21
Deciduous Forest..................................................................................22
Taiga........................................................................................................23
Rainforest...............................................................................................24
Marine....................................................................................................25
Freshwater................................................................................................26
Review Biomes........................................................................................27
Lab Activity................................................................................................28
References...............................................................................................29
Introduction
1
Name: Ms. Twana Jackson
Grade: 7th
Standards: S7L4. Obtain, evaluate, and communicate information to examine the interdependence of organisms with one another and their environments.
a. Construct an explanation for the patterns of interactions observed in different ecosystems in terms of the relationships among and between organisms and abiotic components of the ecosystem. (Clarification statement: The interactions include, but are not limited to, predator-prey relationships, competition, mutualism, parasitism, and commensalism.)
b. Develop a model to describe the cycling of matter and the flow of energy among biotic and abiotic components of an ecosystem.
(Clarification statement: Emphasis is on tracing movement of matter and flow of energy, not the biochemical mechanisms of photosynthesis and cellular respiration.)
c. Analyze and interpret data to provide evidence for how resource availability, disease, climate, and human activity affect individual organisms, populations, communities, and ecosystems.
d. Ask questions to gather and synthesize information from multiple sources to differentiate between Earth’s major terrestrial biomes (i.e., tropical rain forest, savanna, temperate forest, desert, grassland, taiga, and tundra) and aquatic ecosystems (i.e., freshwater, estuaries, and
marine).(Clarification statement: Emphasis is on the factors that influence patterns across biomes such as the climate, availability of food and water, and location.)
Overview
2
All living things depend on their environment to supply them with what they need, including food, water, and shelter. This is known as interdependence. For example, living things that cannot make their own food must eat other organisms for food. Watch the video and learn more about this!!
History of Natural Selection
3
Charles Darwin and Alfred Wallace developed the idea of evolution through natural selection. But this idea was not accepted by scientists until more evidence came along. English naturalist Charles Darwin & Alfred Wallace developed the idea of natural selection after a five-year voyage to study plants, animals, and fossils in South America and on islands in the Pacific. In 1859, he brought the idea of natural selection to the attention of the world in his best-selling book, On the Origin of Species.
Classification of Organisms
4
Evolutionary classification is a branch of biological classification that seeks to classify organisms on the basis of phylogenetic relationship and the degree of evolutionary changes taking place. We can also say that the classification that is based on the evolutionary relationship is referred to as phylogenetic classification or evolutionary classification. This kind of classification helps us to know ancestral relationships, the lineages and the evolutionary history of taxonomic groups for the process of classification. Evolution is related to the classification of organisms because this classification is based on the evolutionary similarities between families and species of animals, plants, fungi, and micro-life. For example, both humans and gorillas evolved from the same common ancestor.
For example, evolving long necks has enabled giraffes to feed on leaves that others can't reach, giving them a competitive advantage. Thanks to a better food source, those with longer necks were able to survive to reproduce and so pass on the characteristic to the succeeding generation.
Natural selection is the process through which species adapt to their environments. It is the engine that drives evolution. Individuals in a population are naturally variable, meaning that they are all different in some ways. This variation means that some individuals have traits better suited to the environment than others. Individuals with adaptive traits—traits that give them some advantage—are more likely to survive and reproduce. These individuals then pass the adaptive traits on to their offspring. Over time, these advantageous traits become more common in the population. Through this process of natural selection, favorable traits are transmitted through generations.
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