For each area, research what is meant, include key facts, advantages and disadvantages.
I can answer exam questions
WATCH POINT Remember BATS - BECAUSE, AS, THEREFORE or SO Using these words will help you give more detail in your answers.
STATE/NAME/IDENTIFY/GIVE This means you have to produce a fact or short statement linked to the key words in the question.
DESCRIBE This means you have to provide straightforward points of information linked to the key words in the question.
EXPLAIN This means you have to provide more detailed points of information linked to the key words in the question. This could include, e.g. giving reasons for.............. or explaining the effects of..............
MAKE ADAPTIONS TO This means you have to make changes to improve the recipe or dish given in the question.
EVALUATE This means you have to (1) state a FACT using the information from the scenario/chart in the question, (2) to form an OPINION which is a judgement based on the facts linked to the scenario or target group and (3) give a CONSEQUENCE of what could happen based on the facts and opinions you have formed. Extra marks can be achieved by DEVELOPING your response further.
ANALYSE This means to make a number of comments related to the context of the question. You should identify appropriate information from the given sources, the relationship between the identified information, and their significance when taken together.
Industrial or intensive agriculture is distinguished from traditional agriculture by a high ratio of inputs to land area, and is also characterized by a reduction in fallow periods, in order to maximize crop yields. Over the past 50 years, increased usage of chemical fertilizers, irrigation systems, pesticides, and mechanized technologies has doubled agricultural productivity. This rapid increase in food production has allowed for reduction in malnutrition rates around the world, despite a doubling of the world’s population in the same amount of time. However, more and more resources are required to sustain agricultural systems that are capable of supporting the consumption rates of industrialized countries, as well as the burgeoning populations of developing countries. Crops like rice, maize, and wheat have historically dominated global agricultural production, with monocultures being the typical form of production by the end of the 20th century. This trend of agricultural intensification has resulted in the reduction of the biodiversity of natural ecosystems and the loss of habitats for terrestrial and aquatic animal species.
Industrial agriculture, along with subsistence agriculture, is the most significant driver of deforestation in tropical and subtropical countries, accounting for 80% of deforestation from 2000-2010. The current contribution of agriculture to deforestation varies by region, with industrial agriculture being responsible for 30% of deforestation in Africa and Asia, but close to 70% in Latin America. The most significant agricultural drivers of deforestation include soy, palm oil, and cattle ranching. The majority of industrial agriculture activities affecting forestland typically take place in developing countries that produce commodities for global markets. In the past, research had identified expansion of rural populations as the key driver of deforestation due to small-scale agriculture, but recent studies have shown the growth of urban centers and global commodity markets are stronger drivers of deforestation today. For instance, In the rainforests of the Congo basin and Africa, traditional agriculture is the most common form of agricultural land use, although commercial agriculture of crops such as palm oil is growing. In Southeast Asia, the palm oil sector is the primary driver of forest conversion.
A sustainable food system is a type of food system that provides healthy food to people while also providing sustainable impacts on both environmental, economic and social systems that surround food.
Sustainable food systems start with the development of sustainable agricultural practices, development of more sustainable food distribution systems, creation of sustainable diets and reduction of food waste throughout the system. Sustainable food systems have been argued to be central to many or all 17 Sustainable Development Goals.
Moving to sustainable food systems is an important component of addressing the causes of climate change. A 2020 review conducted for the European Union found that up to 37% of global greenhouse gas emissions could be attributed to the food system, including crop and livestock production, transportation, changing land use (including deforestation) and food loss and waste.