by Hana Zbožínková


Kultura, historie a literatura Velké Británie 1, 2, 3
447544 Zbožínková Hana
Proto English
English has its roots in the languages of the Germanic peoples of northern Europe. During the Roman Empire, most of the Germanic-inhabited area remained
independent from Rome, although some southwestern parts were within the empire.
Some Germanics served in the Roman military, and troops from Germanic tribes such as the TungriBataviMenapii and Frisii served in Britainia under Roman command.
Germanic settlement and power expanded during the Migration Period, which saw the fall of the Western Roman Empire. A Germanic settlement of Britain took place from the 5th to the 7th century,
following the end of Roman rule on the island. The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle relates that around the year 449 Vortigern, king of the Britons, invited the "Angle kin" to help repel
invading Picts, in return for lands in the southeast of Britain.
This led to waves of settlers who eventually established seven kingdoms, known
as the heptarchy. Bede, who wrote his Ecclesiastical History in AD 731, writes of invasion by AnglesSaxons and Jutes, although the precise nature of the invasion and
settlement and the contributions made by these particular groups are the
subject of much dispute among historians.
Old English
The Germanic settlers in the British Isles initially spoke a number of different dialects, which would develop into a language that came to be called Anglo-Saxon, or now more commonly Old English. It displaced the indigenous Brittonic Celtic in parts of the areas of Britain that later formed the Kingdom of England, while Celtic languages remained in most of ScotlandWales and Cornwall, and many compound Celtic-Germanic place names survive, hinting at early language mixing. Old English continued to exhibit local variation, the remnants of which continue to be found in dialects of Modern English.The four main dialects were MercianNorthumbrianKentish and West Saxon; the last of these formed the basis for the literary standard of the later Old English period, although the dominant forms of Middle and Modern English would develop mainly from Mercian.