Book Creator

Language and Gender

by Abdul Malik Harahap



A. Introduction
B. Language and gender 
C. Gender Language Differences 
D. Theories of Language and Gender
E. Categories of Gender in language
F. Language and Gender Relationship
G. Difference Language of Men and Women
H. The Significance of Language Gender Language
I. Linguistic Forms  
J. The Development Trend of Language Gender Difference Studies
K. The Research Meaning of Language Gender Difference
L. Reasons for gender differences in language use
M. Do Males and Females Think and Learn differently?
A. Introduction
1. Sociolinguistics
Hudson in Wardaugh (2006:10) says ‘there are linguistic items, such as entities as sounds, words, grammatical, structures and so on. Social theorists, particulary sociologists, attempts to understand how societies are structured and how people manage to live together. To do so, the use such concepts as ‘identity’, ’power’, ’class’, ‘status’, ‘solidarity’, ‘accomodation’, ‘face’, ‘gender’, ‘politeness’, etc. Sociolinguistics is a branch of linguistics that takes language and object of study in a way it is usually distinguished from how syntax, semantics, morphology, and phonology handle it.

Hudson in Wardhaugh (2006:13) says sociolinguistics is the stud of language in relation to society. Holmes (2001:1) says that sociolinguistics are studied the relationship between language and society. They are sociolinguists, interested in explaining why we speak differently in different social context, and they are concerned with identyfying the social functions of language and the ways it is used to convey social meaning. It makes clear that’s sociolinguistics focused on study of the relations between language and society.

Sociolinguistics is concerned with investigating the relationship between
language and society with the goal being a better understanding of the structure of language and how language function in communication (Wardhaugh 2006: 13).
Holmes (2001:1) states sociolinguistics is concern with the relationship between
language and the context which it is used.
2. Language
Language exist as a system of symbols, in terms of abstract thinking and
senses, it reveals a method and pattern to describe the objective world. From another perspective, language system and language structure’s difference reflected our different recognition of the world in some degree. In addition, as a kind of historical and cultural heritage, during the process of using it, the language in a certain sense, reflects the formation of cultural traditions, evolution of civilization, national spirit creation, social life improvement.

According to Holmes (2001) females and males have developed different pattern of the use of language in which females are more linguistically polite than male. Female tend to speak less forcefully than males, while males tend to swear much more than females. For example, Holmes stated that many researchers found that in male conversation, the content of that talk focused on sports, aggresive, competition, teasing and doing things. On the other hand, in female conversation, it was focused on the self, feelings, affiliation with others, home, and family.

They agree that males speak more than females do. It is also reported that females use more polite forms and more compliments than males. Language use consist of the socially and cognitively determined selection of behaviours according to the goals of the speaker and the context of the situation.