Book Creator

Higher Rural - Semi-Arid

by Mr Bell


Human Environments 2

Rural: Semi-Arid
In relation to rural land degradation in semi-arid area (Sahel)

1. The Impact

2. The Management
1. Impact of Desertification
1. Impact on People (Conflict & Migration)
Darfur Conflict – the cause of the conflict involved the land and water right disputes between semi-nomadic livestock herders (Arab tribes) and those who practice sedentary agriculture (non- Arab tribes). This has been due to the spread of the desert and lack of water resources. Estimated ¼ of a Million people died and 2 Million people were displaced mainly to neighbouring Chad because of the conflict. 
2. Impact on People (Starvation & Malnutrition) 
Ethiopian Famine in 1983-85 claimed as many as 1 Million lives. There have been droughts and famines (although not to the same scale) in 4 out of the last 10 years.
In Ethiopia, about 44 percent of the children under five are stunted due to malnutrition. According to the United Nations Children’s Fund (Unicef), this adds up to more than 5 million children.
This has an impact on the child's physical ability, but also their immune system meaning they are more likely to get ill, and their brain development is impacted which means many children who have suffered from malnutrition struggle to develop academically as well as physically. 
3. Impact on People (Loss of Traditional Culture)
The Fulani are a traditional nomadic tribe who are being forced to become sedentary farmers which causes a loss of tradition and knowledge as well as increasing migration (particularly of the young males) to nearby cities not within traditional Fulani areas (mainly West and Central Africa), they migrate to such cities as Lagos, and Bamako. 
Increasingly, there is less land available for herding purposes, and conflicts with settled populations have been on the increase. Present-day governments are also curtailing the Fulani movements or trying to force them to settle down. 
4. Impact on Economy
The economy of Ethiopia is based on Agriculture which accounts for 80% of exports, and 80% of the labour force. Many other economic activities depend on agriculture, including marketing, processing, and export of agricultural products.
When there is a drought and food production drops it affects the whole economy.