Book Creator

Urban: Brazil N5

by Mr Bell

Pages 2 and 3 of 15

Human Environments 4

National 5
Within the context of Developing Countries:

In the context of urban areas:

1.recent developments which deal with issues in shanty towns in developing world cities
Location: Rocinha - Rio de Janeiro
Rio is Brazil’s second largest city.

It is located on the south east coast.

Approximately one fifth (20%) of the 6.3 million population live in shanty towns.

The biggest shanty town in Rio is Rocinha
Favelas are found on the outskirts of the city often on hillsides as the land is not in demand as it is difficult to build on.

Rochina is a favela housing more than 100,000 people in Rio.
Rio’s Shanty Town problems
Rapid growth leads to

1.Inadequate housing and services. 20% live in Shanty towns.

2.Shanty town services are non-existent leading to a low standard of living.

3.Shortage of affordable formal housing.

4.Shanty towns form on inappropriate land, e.g. liable to flooding.

5.Collapsing infrastructure, roads, sewerage etc.

6.Increasing levels of pollution.

7.Increased volume of traffic on poor roads.

8.Lack of employment increases the informal sector.

9. Crime, as many areas are controlled by local drug cartels. 
Problems in Rio Shanty Towns
Housing in Rochina – overcrowding & unstable buildings

Sanitation problems - Open sewers and sewage contaminating drinking water supply.

Crime – Drug cartels & poverty breeds violent crime

Pollution –open sewers and lack of rubbish collection facilities 

Unemployment – people work in the informal sector due to a lack of jobs
Solution 1. Redevelopment
1.Clearance of the slums: In the past the authorities tried to clear the slums - people just moved elsewhere.

2. Housing developments: Tower blocks built to re-house the residents.
However often these flats are not suitable for the residents as they are too far away from their work / family, or too expensive.
Solution 2. Site and service schemes
3. Prefabricated houses have been built in Rocinha by the Brazilian Government, with basic facilities like toilets and electricity.

4. The migrant is given rights of ownership and then expected to complete the work at his or her expense.
As people have been given ownerships rights, they will spend their own money on the properties.
5. Improved services such as Refuse collection is organised, schools and health centres are built. This is often done as a cooperative between groups of families.

6. Security has been improved by having more police patrols, which have helped to reduce drugs related crime.
These schemes are relatively cheap and give the migrants a sense of control over their future. They also encourage community spirit.
Favela Bairro Scheme