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Science E-Book

by Rishabh Karnik

Cover

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Class
VIII
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Fossil Fuels to
Future Fuels
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Author - Rishabh Karnik
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We use various materials for our basic needs. Some of them are natural and some of the are man-made. Natural one consists of Air, Water, Soil, etc. But, these resources are exhaustible. In the light of the availability of various resources in nature, natural resources can be classified into two categories, named:
1. Exhaustible Natural Resources
2. Inexhaustible Natural Resources
Oh Hi!
Myself Danny & I will be helping throughout the book
But first, tell me how many of you are aware of fossil fuels depleting on Earth's surface? I am sure very less of you. But today, we will discuss about the fossil fuels.
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We use various materials for our basic needs. Some of them are natural and some of the are man-made. Natural one consists of Air, Water, Soil, etc. But, these resources are exhaustible. In the light of the availability of various resources in nature, natural resources can be classified into two categories, named:
1. Exhaustible Natural Resources
2. Inexhaustible Natural Resources
Since some of these resources are exhaustible, can we humans depend on them?
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COAL
About 300 million years ago, the Earth had dense forests in low lying wetland areas. Due to natural processes, like flooding, these forests got buried under the soil. As more soil got deposited over them, they were compressed. The temperature also increased as they sank deeper and deeper. Under high pressure and high temperature, dead plants got slowly converted into coal. As coal mainly contains carbon, the slow process of conversion of dead vegetation into coal is called carbonisation. Since it was formed from the remains of vegetation, coal is also called a fossil fuel.
A Coal Mine
When coal is heated in air, coal burns and produces mainly carbon dioxide gas. Coal is processed in industry to get some useful products such as coke, coal tar and coal gas.
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A Coal Mine
Petroleum
You know that petrol is used as a fuel in light automobiles such as motor cycles scooters and cars. Heavy motor vehicles like trucks and tractors run on diesel. Petrol and diesel are obtained from a natural resource called petroleum. Petroleum was formed from organisms living in the sea. As these organisms died, their bodies settled at the bottom of the sea and got covered with layers of sand and clay. Over millions of years, absence of air, high temperature and high pressure transformed the dead organisms into petroleum and natural gas.
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