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by Ariani Khairunnisya

Pages 4 and 5 of 45

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15 March 2022 
Racial Attitudes in America
Patton Moberg, Maria Krysan, Deanna Christianson
Public Opinion Quarterly, Pages 450–471, https://doi.org/10.1093/poq/nfz014
Racial attitudes are multidimensional, and the corresponding picture we get from survey data on racial attitudes is complex. Tracing the results of major national surveys that provide trends over at least 10 years, and with at least three time points (primarily the General Social Survey and the National Election Studies), this article reveals that complexity. Some survey questions show dramatic changes in support of racial equality, while others reveal stagnation or even increasing negativity or disinterest. The article also describes the differences between whites and blacks in patterns and trends. Although compared to some issues, the survey record on racial attitudes is robust and lengthy, we draw attention to important ways in which it is uneven. We conclude by highlighting areas for future research that focus on improved survey measures that will capture more fully the complexity of contemporary public opinion on racial matters.Sarah 
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16 march 2022 
Managing Microaggressions: Addressing Everyday Racism in Therapeutic
This chapter introduces the concept of microaggressions. It reviews stigmatized racial and ethnic identities and the importance of terminology. It outlines the meaning of Whiteness and White racial identity. It then describes and defines what microaggressions are specifically and the research surrounding this concept. Common stereotypes of ethnic and racial groups are outlined. Types of microaggressive behavior include categories termed not a true citizen; racial categorization and sameness; assumptions about intelligence, competence, and status; false color-blindness/invalidating racial or ethnic identity; criminality or dangerousness; denial of individual racism; myth of meritocracy/race is irrelevant for success; reverse racism hostility; pathologizing minority culture or appearance; second-class citizen/ignored; tokenism; attempting to connect using stereotypes; exoticization and eroticization; avoidance and distancing; environmental exclusion; and environmental attacks. Microaggressions in the media and their negative impact on society are described. Distinctions and commonalities between microaggressions and everyday racism as well as other related concepts are analyzed. Microaggressions overlap with some similar concepts, so one cannot study microaggressions without considering these other close constructs and the related literature base. Furthermore, microaggressions are context dependent: A statement that might be microaggressive in one situation may not be a microaggression in another case, and therefore it may be difficult to recognize
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17 march 2022
The Economic Journal Assessing Racial Profiling Get access Arrow
In this article I consider the evaluation of racial profiling in traffic stops from a combination of welfarist and non‐welfarist considerations. I argue that benefits from profiling in terms of crime reduction have not been identified and that further, the harm to those who are innocent and stopped is potentially high. I then argue that profiling creates a clear injustice to innocent African Americans. Together, these claims make the assessment of profiling an example of decision making under ambiguity. I resolve the ambiguity with a Fairness Presumption which leads me to reject profiling in traffic stops as a public policy.
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18 march 2022
Can Civil Society Reclaim Truth? Results from a Community-Based Truth and Reconciliation Commission Get access Arrow
David K. Androff, Jr https://doi.org/10.1093/ijtj/ijs012
The Greensboro Truth and Reconciliation Commission (GTRC) was a grassroots initiative with no state sanction, organized and supported solely by civil society. Its purpose was to discover and disseminate the truth about a racially motivated shooting by members of the Ku Klux Klan in 1979. This article asks whether such an initiative can succeed in seeking the truth in the same way that a formal transitional justice measure would. It reviews how the GTRC originated from civil society, how it was funded and its truth-seeking mandate, and presents data from qualitative interviews with victims of the shooting who participated in the GTRC. The article demonstrates how the GTRC faced significant obstacles to truth seeking, including lack of participation from many perpetrators, local government and law enforcement and lack of engagement from a wider segment of Greensboro. Nonetheless, the GTRC stands as an example of participatory democracy and of how civil society can accomplish truth seeking despite government resistance.
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19 march 2022
To Stay the Murderer’s Hand and the Rapist’s Passions, and for the Safety and Security of Civil Society’: The Emergence of Racial Disparities in Capital Punishment in Jim Crow New Building on a quantitative analysis of case-level data culled from police, court, and prison records, it explores the emergence of racial disparities in death-penalty sentencing and charts the increasing use of capital punishment as a mechanism of racial control. The paper focuses on four surprising and counter-intuitive patterns in the application of the death penalty. First, shifts in the use of capital punishment during this era bore no connection to patterns of violent crime. Second, changes in death-penalty sentencing were only loosely related to overall trends in homicide conviction. Third, and most surprising, Orleans Parish jurors, particularly during the 1920s, sent white killers to the gallows at a higher rate than African American killers. And fourth, the analysis of case-level records reveals dramatic shifts in death-penalty sentencing during the 1930s, particularly the development of a pronounced racial disparity in the application of capital punishment. Prosecutors also exploited the threat of capital charges to secure guilty pleas from African American suspects, and thus changes in death-penalty sentencing contributed to racial disparities in incarceration. In short, this micro-analysis helps to explain when and why the death penalty became a core component of Jim Crow criminal justice.