Life and Earth Science for All Kids By: Allyson Arowood
Table of Contents
3. Meet the Author/Standards 4. The Study of Cells 5. Cells 6. Organelles and Their Functions 7. Genetics 8. Systems 9. Conceptions and Misconceptions 10. Lab Activity 11. Assessment 12. Interdependence 13. Classification of Organisms 14. Kingdoms 15. Ecology 16. Ecosystems 17. Terrestrial Biomes 18. Terrestrial Biomes continued 19. Aquatic Biomes 20. Conceptions and Misconceptions 21. Lab Activity 22. Assessment 23. Earth's Forces 24. Plate Tectonics 25. Plate tectonics continued 26. Rocks and Minerals 27. Rocks and Minerals continued 28. Earth's Surface: Land and Water
29. Earth's Surface: Land and Water continued 30. Weather 31. Weather continued 32. Conceptions and Misconceptions 33. Lab Activity 34. Assessment 35. Earth 36. Earth Continued 37. Solar System 38. Solar System Continued 39. Galaxies 40. Galaxies Continued 41. Stars 42. Stars Continued 43. Conceptions and Misconceptions 44. Lab Activity 45. Assessment
Standards S4L1. Obtain, evaluate, and communicate information about the roles of organisms and the flow of energy within an ecosystem. a. Develop a model to describe the roles of producers, consumers, and decomposers in a community. (Clarification statement: Students are not expected to identify the different types of consumers – herbivores, carnivores, omnivores and scavengers.) b. Develop simple models to illustrate the flow of energy through a food web/food chain beginning with sunlight and including producers, consumers, and decomposers. c. Design a scenario to demonstrate the effect of a change on an ecosystem. (Clarification statement: Include living and non-living factors in the scenario.) d. Use printed and digital data to develop a model illustrating and describing changes to the flow of energy in an ecosystem when plants or animals become scarce, extinct or overabundant.
Standards S4E1. Obtain, evaluate, and communicate information to compare and contrast the physical attributes of stars and planets. a. Ask questions to compare and contrast technological advances that have changed the amount and type of information on distant objects in the sky. b. Construct an argument on why some stars (including the Earth’s sun) appear to be larger or brighter than others. (Clarification statement: Differences are limited to distance and size, not age or stage of evolution.) c. Construct an explanation of the differences between stars and planets. d. Evaluate strengths and limitations of models of our solar system in describing relative size, order, appearance and composition of planets and the sun. (Clarification statement: Composition of planets is limited to rocky vs. gaseous.) S4E2. Obtain, evaluate, and communicate information to model the effects of the position and motion of the Earth and the moon in relation to the sun as observed from the Earth. a. Develop a model to support an explanation of why the length of day and night change throughout the year. b. Develop a model based on observations to describe the repeating pattern of the phases of the moon (new, crescent, quarter, gibbous, and full). c. Construct an explanation of how the Earth’s orbit, with its consistent tilt, affects seasonal changes. S4E3. Obtain, evaluate, and communicate information to demonstrate the water cycle. a. Plan and carry out investigations to observe the flow of energy in water as it changes states from solid (ice) to liquid (water) to gas (water vapor) and changes from gas to liquid to solid. b. Develop models to illustrate multiple pathways water may take during the water cycle (evaporation, condensation, and precipitation).(Clarification statement: Students should understand that then water cycle does not follow a single pathway.)
All About Me!!
The Study of Cells
What are cells? A cell is the basic structural, functional, and biological unit of all living things. It is the smallest unit of life that contains the fundamental molecules of life such as, biomolecules, cytoplasm, and a membrane. In this section of the book, we will be discussing cells, organelles, genetics, and systems.
Watch this video to get a better understanding of what we will be discussing.
A prokaryotic cell is a single-celled organism that does not have a true nucleus or membrane-bound organelles. Prokaryotic cells are found in the domains of Bacteria and Archaea.
Eukaryotic cells contain a nucleus and organelles and are enclosed by a plasma membrane. They are found in organisms such as protists, algae, fungi, plants, and animals.
Organelles and their Functions
Nucleus: The nucleus is a double-membraned organelle that contains the genetic material and other instructions required for cellular processes. It stores hereditary material or DNA.
Nucleolus: A spherical structure found in the cell's nucleus whose primary function is to produce and assemble the cell's ribosomes. The nucleolus is also where ribosomal RNA genes are transcribed.
Mitochondria: A membrane-bound cell organelles that generate most of the chemical energy needed to power the cell's biochemical reactions. Chemical energy produced by the mitochondria is stored in a small molecule called adenosine triphosphate.
Golgi Body: A stack of small flat sacs formed by membranes inside the cell's cytoplasm. The Golgi body prepares proteins and lipid molecules for use in other places inside and outside the cell.
Cell wall: A structural layer surrounding some types of cells, just outside the cell membrane. It provides the cell with both structural support and protection and also acts as a filtering mechanism.
Chloroplast: Plant cell organelles that convert light energy into relatively stable chemical energy via the photosynthetic process.
Cell Theory: A theory in biology that includes one or both of the statements that the cell is the fundamental structural and functional unit of living, matter and that the organism is composed of autonomous cells with its properties being the sum of those of its cells.
Mitosis: A process of cell duplication, or reproduction, during which one cell gives rise to two genetically identical daughter cells.
Lysosomes: A membrane-bound organelle that contains digestive enzymes. They break down excess or worn-out cell parts.
Endoplasmic Reticulum: A large, dynamic structure that serves many roles in the cell including calcium storage, protein synthesis, and lipid metabolism.
Ribosome: The cellular machinery responsible for making proteins.
Vacuole: A membrane-bound organelle that are storage bubbles found in the cells. They are found in plants and animals, but larger in plants.