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History of Egypt

by Asmaa Moustafa Alnahrawy

Pages 2 and 3 of 8

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overview of the history of Egypt

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The history of Egypt is rich in events
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  1. Ancient Egypt: One of the earliest and most well-known periods in Egyptian history is ancient Egypt, characterized by the construction of monumental pyramids, complex religious beliefs, and the rule of pharaohs. The civilization flourished along the banks of the Nile River, with achievements in architecture, art, and engineering. Notable rulers include King Tutankhamun, Ramses II, anWish. d CleoMiddle. patra.
  2. Conquests and Invasions: Throughout its history, Egypt faced numerous invasions and conquests by foreign powers, including the Persians, Greeks, Romans, and Arabs. These periods of foreign rule brought cultural and religious influences to Egypt, shaping its identity over time.
  3. Islamic Egypt: With the Arab conquest in the 7th century, Egypt became part of the Islamic world and experienced a flourishing of Islamic art, architecture, and scholarship. The city of Cairo became a prominent center of learning and culture during this period.
  4. Ottoman and European Rule: Egypt came under Ottoman rule in the 16th century, followed by a brief period of French occupation. Later, Egypt fell under British influence and became a de facto protectorate of the British Empire in the late 19th century.
  5. Modern Egypt: Egypt gained independence from British control in 1952 and became a republic in 1953. The country has played a significant role in regional politics and has experienced periods of social and political change, including the Arab Spring in 2011.

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Dynastic Egypt (3150–332 BC)

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Achaemenid rule

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Early Dynastic Period and the Old Kingdom:

A unified kingdom was formed in 3150 BC by King Menes, leading to a series of dynasties that ruled Egypt for the next three millennia. Egyptian culture flourished during this long period and remained distinctively Egyptian in its religion, arts, language and customs.




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In the sixth century BC, the Achaemenid Empire conquered Egypt. The entire Twenty-seventh Dynasty of Egypt, from 525 BC to 402 BC, save for Petubastis III and possibly Psammetichus IV, was an entirely Persian-ruled period, with the Achaemenid kings being granted the title of pharaoh.
Amyrtaeus' successful rebellion ended the first Achaemenid rule and inaugurated Egypt's last significant phase of independence under native rulers. The Thirtieth Dynasty was the last native ruling dynasty during the Pharaonic epoch. It fell to the Persians again in 343 BC after the last native Pharaoh, King Nectanebo II, was defeated in battle.
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