This book will explore child developmental theories using a variety of materials. Please work your way through this book and access it when needed as a useful resource
The theories explored in this book are:
Bowlby Attachment Theory
Psychoanalytical Theory (Freud)
Psychosocial Theory (Erikson)
Behaviourism and Social Cognitive Theories (Watson, Skinner and Bandura)
Cognitive development Theories (Piaget, Vygotsky)
Ecological Theory (Bronfenbenner)
New Approaches ( Neuropsychology, Behavioural Genomics)
Bowlby's Attachment Theory
Bowlby believed that children come into the world biologically pre-programmed to form attachments with others, because this will help them to survive
The child has an innate (i.e. inborn) need to attach to one main caregiver
Bowlby defined attachment as a 'lasting psychological connectedness between human beings.'
Children will seek proximity to the caregiver when feeling threatened or stressed
The child will form an attachment or bond to the caregiver that responds (whether that be negatively or positively)
Bowlby defined different stages of attachment - see next page
Bowlby's Stages of Attachment
Freud believed that an individual's personality was made up of 3 parts: The Id, The Ego and The Superego.
Id: Freud thought everyone was born with an Id. It is made from our basic drives, it operates on the pleasure principle as it seeks immediate gratification for it's urges. For example, infants have no control of their drives ,if they get hungry they will scream for food until it is provided and therefore their urge is satisfied.
Ego: This is the ability to be able to balance between the basic drives and urges and the real world. As children grow older they become aware of the world around them and control their emotions but still get their needs met. They may still have the urges of feeling hungry, but know if they ask politely for food they will get it.
Superego: Moral principles are maintained by the Superego. Freud believed that children develop moral principles between the ages of 5-7 years , before then they do not feel guilt. So a younger child when hungry may help himself to a biscuit, but in an older child the superego helps them resist this urge and controls their actions as they know it is wrong to just take one.