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by Heather MacKinnon
by Heather MacKinnon
- The city of Rome was the center of one of the largest and most powerful empires the world has seen.
-The Roman Empire was based in what is now Italy
- As the Roman Empire took over more land and people, its influence spread throughout Western Europe.
- The achievements of the Romans influenced the languages, literature, laws, methods of government, roads, and buildings all over Western Europe.
- Ancient Rome can be divided into two main periods.
- The Roman people established a republic around 509 BCE. In 27BCE, the republic became an empire which lasted for almost 500 years.
Some Background on Rome
-Over 2,500 years ago, Rome began as a tiny village along the Tiber River on the Italian peninsula.
-It was an excellent location.
-The soil was good so crops could be grown easily.
- It was surrounded by 7 hills which offered a natural defensive barrier.
- The river provided fresh water for drinking and bathing.
- With these advantages, Rome grew quickly.
Early Rule of Ancient Rome
- Early ancient Rome was ruled by kings with Romulus ruling for 37 years.
- While Romulus was king, he established the military, the senate and a judiciary system.
- Romulus also waged war on his neighbours who were known as the Sabines.
- He was known for stealing the young women of the Sabines and Latins in order to form marriages with the men of ancient Rome.
- This caused problems between the groups of people around ancient Rome, and war broke out.
-When the war against the Sabines ended in stalemate, Romulus was forced to jointly rule with King Titus of the Sabines.
- Romulus went on to kill King Titus after 5 years and rule early ancient Rome solely on his own.
The Roman Empire
-Around 133BCE Rome entered a period of unrest and civil war.
-People in Italy rebelled against Rome's strict rule in 90BCE.
-During 73-71BCE a gladiator, named Spartacus led an army of runaway slaves in war against Rome.
-Rome defeated both of these rebellions.
-Meanwhile, Rome continued to expand its empire.
-The most successful general was Julius Caesar.
- He won victories in far-off areas and took the power in Rome.
- However, his enemies assassinated him in 44BCE. This set off another period of civil war.
- Pease finally came under the leadership of Caesar's grandnephew Octavian, who became Rome's first emperor.
Downfall of Rome
-After the death of the emperor Theodosius I in 395, the Roman Empire split in two.
-The Eastern Roman Empire was based in Constantinople. The Western Roman Empire was based in Rome.
-Several groups of outside peoples, including the Vandals and the Huns, attacked the western empire.
-A group called the Visigoths attacked the city of Rome in 410.
-The last western emperor fell in 476.
-This brought an end to the Western Roman Empire.
-The eastern empire continued as the Byzantine Empire until 1453